Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about theCivil Rights Movement for Jim Crow Laws. Answer: Introduction The civil rights movement took place in the 1950s.It was a mass protest movement carried out against racial discrimination and segregation by black Americans. The black Americans wanted equal rights with the whites who oppressed them. The movement was nonviolent and later led to laws protecting every person regardless of sex, race color or national origin. However, the whites had already done great damage to Black Americans taken in the Southern United States as slaves. The Civil Rights Movement was first led by the first and Second World War. The movement, therefore, began to defend equal rights and opportunities for all individuals without looking at their race. There is still racism in the current world though it cannot be compared to how it affected people many decades ago. The paper is centered on the emergence of the civil rights movement as well as its impacts in the southern United States. It further explains the consequences of racial discrimination within the English speaki ng countries. The emergence of Civil Rights movement So how did the Civil Rights Movement begin? The civil rights movement did not just come into being but out of attempts to abolish the institution of slavery (Goodwin et al., 2014).The activists wanted their quality of life improved hence formed the movement. They felt that they were not treated the same as white yet they were all human beings, therefore, wanted justice to prevail. Throughout the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln who was the president offered the emancipation proclamation (Omi et al., 2014). It was then codified into law is the 13th Amendment to the constitution of US. The amendment legitimately banned the institution of slavery and went into impact in 1865.Around the year 1880, the segregation law was created and named as Jim Crow Laws. The law gave the states the right to enforce legal punishments on individuals for consorting with people of a different race. This implied that the blacks could not mingle with the whites. The blacks were supposed to be on their own so as the whites (West, 2014).Many laws were formed following the segregation laws. For instance, the blacks and whites could not have access to the similar public facility with whites. In fact, every race had own entryway, bathroom, and waiting room. Besides, the blacks and whites could not attend the same public school. More so, the interracial marriages were banned completely. As a result, people who went against these rules were severely punished or jailed according to Jim Crow Laws. Activists involved in Civil Rights movement For many years of Liberation Proclamation, the blacks in Southern states continued to suffer. They lived a rigid unsatisfactory world of segregation, citizenship deprivation and other forms of tyranny which included race-inspired difficulty (Button, 2014). Jim crow laws at state and local states. The non-violent movement and civil disobedient approaches were employed by the activists to bring some change. A number of civil rights leaders within the community of blacks and beyond were recognized during that period. Some of the leaders include Martin Luther King, Andrew Goodman, Rosa Parks as well as other leaders of the Christian group. In fact, a number of them endangered their life as many also lost their lives in the name of equality and freedom. Their motive behind the civil right movement involved school segregation. Rosa Park is said to have refused to give offer her seat to the white person, despite that it was public accommodation and transportation(Goodwin et al., 2014).Also, there was the murder of a fourteen-year-old in Chicago school. The deeds, in fact, led to all coming together to fight against the segregation. Impacts of the Civil Rights Movement The movement was focused on fighting slavery whereby African slaves tried to resist racial exploitation. The activists needed to completely do away with the institution of slavery and set everyone free. However, American slaves were liberated due to civil war and later given basic civil rights. This was done thru the passage of 15th and 14th amendments to the United States Constitution. Although the amendments were approved, the fights to ensure the federal fortification of these human rights endured to the next century (Spring, 2016). The civil right movement did not engage violence hence altered the pattern of public amenities being exploited by racialism in the South. The nonviolent pattern led to the achievement of the most crucial breakthrough in equal-rights law for African Americans ever since it was reconstructed in 1865 to 1877.Although the approval of 1964 and 1965 of the primary civil rights law was successful for the movement; the activists had already started to view the ir tussle ass a liberation or freedom movement. There were many campaigns and acts that influenced the movements towards resisting slavery (Dierenfield, 2013). The whites and African American performed types of civil disobedience and protests such as marches, sit-ins boycotts, and many other non-violent deeds. This movement brought a great change and accomplishments such as voting rights, Montgomery Bus Boycott and Civil Rights Act Section of 1964.Along with the attainments, came with many controversies and outbreaks that caused casualties swept the south as well as the side path of acts involving violence(West, 2014). Ideally, they didn't view their struggle as merely a way of seeking civil rights changes but rather confronting the long-lasting political, economic as well as cultural significances of past racial repression. Supreme Court and Civil rights The leading approach was focused on the courts. It was led by the (NAACP) which meant the Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The idea was initiated lawsuits meant to destabilize the legal basis of Jim Crow Laws of discrimination in the southern United States. The landmark Topeka Board of Education v. Brown ruling said that the use of separate public facilities supported inequality. The court, therefore, pointed out that the discrimination within the public education was unconstitutional (Beard, 2017). Although the Supreme Court ruling was a great success for civil rights, the white supremacists on the other side guaranteed massive opposition to desegregation. In reaction to Board v. Brown, a crowd of Southern congressmen delivered the southern manifesto, while, denouncing the court's verdict and swearing, to fight back its enforcement. In the long run, the federal interference was needed to implement the decision. The Supreme Court at the end took great penalties in B oard versus Brown involving Topeka Education in 1954.The court was, therefore; against school segregation hence ruled that individuals barred from visiting public schools with whites were denied equal rights as stated by the 14 amendments (Spring, 2016). The policy was too extended to state-supported universities and colleges Abolitionism of Jim Crow Laws The history of America has been revealed through determined and persistent effort to increase the scope as well as the comprehensiveness of civil rights. Despite the fact that equal rights were approved in the southern United States through the documents, a number of blacks were still denied basic rights. Indentured servants and African slaves did not have an absolute right to liberty, life as well as the chase for happiness asserted by the British colonists to justify their independence declaration (Goodwin et al., 2014).Besides, they were not included to the United States people who created the constitution to enable general welfare promotion and get blessings of liberty. However, the constitution only protected slavery by facilitating slaves' importation till 1808.Besides, the constitution helped in enabling the slaves' return of who had run to other states for the refugee. As the Southern United States continued to expand its borders, Native American group resisted absorption and conquest. The individual states which influenced a number of the rights of American people limited the rights for voting to white property possessing males and other basic rights. Some of these rights include; the right to serve on juries and the right to own land. The Africa-American were denied such rights because of their gender and color. However, the point is? How does color affect all these activities in the southern United States? The question still lingers in so many minds wanting to know whether the society still has an issue with the color. Well, probably things are changing in the current world (Beard, 2017). During that time, a small group of blacks lived outside the system of the slave. However, those recognized as free blacks suffered enforced segregation and racial discrimination. Although a few slaves rebelled violently against their dependence, African America ns as well as other marginalized groups mostly used nonviolent methods. The protests, pleas, legal challenges and petitions forwarded to government representatives as well as massive and sustained civil rights movements achieved gradual enhancements in their status quo. Black Power The term black power is a political slogan that spread between the 1960s towards the 1980s.The term also refers to different ideologies meant to achieve autonomy for black individuals (Button, 2016).It was promoted in the United States, though the slogans together with other components of the Black Power Movement have already gone abroad. Despite that the inclusive civil rights legislation signified a prominent success for the Civil Rights Program, the obstinacy involving the white power group within the South persuaded a number of black activists, showing them that the nonviolent civil defiance was insufficient (Reich, 2017). Several African Americans also got concerned about the appearance of numerous northern middle-class whites' people in the civil moment. A northern white college scholar joined black militants is some voter registration drive during the Freedom Summer that occurred in 1964.The strategy of the student was viewed as an attempt to force white leadership in the Civi l Rights Movement. As a reaction to the persistent power of the whites, there was an arrival of those within and outside the movement. Besides, a more militant number of the civil rights activism also emerged. The most influential proponent of black power movement was Malcolm X. He advocated cultural pride, black self-defense, and self-reliance when faced with racial violence. The back power led by Malcolm X gained numerous adherents after the murder of King Martin Luther in 1968.He was assassinated while in the arms of James Earl Ray who was an escaped criminal and a white chauvinist (Smith, 2014).After the killing of Malcolm X in 1965, Stokely Carmichael and Black Panther Party took over the movement among the most voiced advocates of Black Power. Conclusion To sum up, the Civil Rights Movement achieved many things in regards to racial segregation. The movement racked up a number of notable conquests from the abolishing of Jim crow laws in the southern United States, headed to the passage of federal rule prohibiting racial oppression, to the prevalent cognizance of the cultural legacy and its great contributions involving African American towards the United States History. The election carried out in 2008 of the African American First president, Obama Barack, was an outstanding presentation of how far the equality struggle has come. However, some indicators show there is still a lot to do in order to eradicate the issue of inequality completely. The goal of comprehensive political, social and economic equality has not been attained yet. African Americans are still being enslaved at a big rate unequal to their proportion of the populace. In fact, the black people are the most common victims associated with police cruelty, while poverty ra tes amidst the black families are higher compared to those of the whites. Stereotypical depictions involving African Americans continue to be rampant in popular culture. A number of black Americans still suffer from deprived access to social facilities. Besides, they suffer from methodical inequalities in institutions such as public education.As victorious as the Civil Rights movement could have been; there is still unfinished business towards the struggle for complete equality. References Beard, C. (2017).An economic interpretation of the Constitution of the United States.Routledge. Button, J. W. (2014).Blacks and social change: Impact of the civil rights movement in southern communities. Princeton University Press. Button, J. W. (2016).Blacks and social change.Princeton University Pres. Dierenfield, B. J. (2013).The civil rights movement: Revised edition. Routledge. Goodwin, J., Jasper, J. M. (Eds.). (2014).The social movements reader: Cases and concepts. John Wiley Sons. Omi, M., Winant, H. (2014).Racial formation in the United States.Routledge. Reich, M. (2017).Racial inequality: A political-economic analysis. Princeton University Press. Smith, C. (Ed.). (2014).Disruptive religion: The force of faith in social movement activism. Routledge. Spring, J. (2016).Deculturalization and the struggle for equality: A brief history of the education of dominated cultures in the United States. Routledge. West, M. (2014)." I Want Those Seats:'Rosa Parks, Buses, and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement.
Monday, December 2, 2019
The Decision Of The Century The Decision of the Century On August 2, 1945, Harry S. Truman made the toughest decision of his life. He knew that if he made the right decision, he would save hundreds of thousands of American lives. In making this decision, he would also be responsible for the deaths of hundreds and thousands of Japanese lives. If he made the wrong decision, the war would drudge on as the death count rose higher and higher as each new battle was fought. Japan would not surrender unconditionally, as the United States wanted. With Germany already beaten, the United States was not about to back down. No one knows whether or not he made the right choice, but he did, in fact, bring an end to World War II. World War IIs basic statistics qualify it as by far the greatest war in history in terms of human and material resources expended. In all, 61 countries with 1.7 billion people, three-fourths of the worlds population took part. A total of 110 million persons were mobilized for military service, more than half of those by three countries: USSR (22-30 million), Germany (17 million), and the United States (16 million). For the major participants the largest numbers on duty at any time were as follows: USSR (12,500,000); U.S. (12, 245,000); Germany (10,938,000); British Empire and Commonwealth (8,720,000); Japan (7,193,000); and China (5,000,000). Harry S. Truman was born May 8, 1884 in Lamar, Missouri. He was named Harry after his uncle, Harrison Young. His parents, John Anderson Truman and Martha Ellen Young Truman, wanted to honor both of Harrys Grandfathers when they were deciding on a middle name for him. The only problem was deciding which one, Anderson Shippe Truman or Solomon Young. His parents finally decided to name him Harry S. and let the S stand for both of Harrys grandfathers names. Before Harry S. Truman became the thirty-third President of the United States, he had many jobs which included: railroad work, business man, sales rep., Captain in the United States Army, a United States Senator, and Vice President. Harry S. Truman became President of The United States on April 12, 1945 after Franklin Delano Roosevelt had passed away from a heart attack. He never knew what he was really getting himself into. Harry S. Truman had only been the President of The United States for thirteen days when Henry L. Stimson, The Secretary of War, delivered a complete report on the United States of Americas new secret weapon that would supposedly end World War II. Before Harry S. Truman received this report, he had no idea that such a weapon existed or that the American scientists had been trying to develop the atomic bomb over the last four years. On July 21, 1945 while at Potsdam, Truman received the results from General Leslie Groves testing of the atomic bomb at Alamogordo. The results were as follows: A force of 15-20,000 tons of TNT, a fireball lasting several seconds, a mushroom cloud rising skyward approximately 41,000 feet above sea level. There were many secondary explosions within the mushroom cloud causing a 1,200-foot crater in the ground. The 100 feet tower, which the bomb had been detonated in and a seventy-foot steel tower a half-mile away was disintegrated. It became obvious that Truman had two choices: invade mainland Japan or drop the atomic bomb. If Truman chose to invade Japan, he calculated he would need a ground force of 766,700 soldiers with roughly 31,000 American casualties within the first 30 days (Hamby 19). In addition to the estimated casualties of the invading ground force the estimated 100,000 prisoners of war would be slaughtered (Ferrell 24). The order was issued by Japans vice minister of war as follows: Whether they are destroyed individually or in groups, or however it is done, with mass bombing, poisonous smoke, poisons, drowning, decapitation or what, dispose of them as the situation dictates. In any case it is the aim not to allow the escape of a single one, to annihilate them all, and not to leave any traces. Another factor in the equation of the bomb vs. an invasion was the weather. At close to the time of the planned invasion a typhoon
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Cotton top Tamarin essays One of the most endangered primates in the world, the cotton-top tamarin, Saguius Oedipus, is distinguished by its remarkable physical appearance. The animal belongs to the Callitrichidae family, the smallest and one of the most diverse of the New World monkeys (Savage, Natural 1). The tamarins unique appearance along with its dying habitat and biomedical possibilities led to the creatures endangerment. Physically, the cotton-top tamarin distinctly stands out among members of its family and the genus Saguinus. The animal is named for the striking crest of white hair running from its forehead to its neck, hanging over its shoulders, noticeable in contrast to the tamarins black face. The underside of the creatures arms and legs is white, while its back is black or brown. Tamarins posses claws rather than nails and have short tusked lower anterior dentition that allows them to suck sap out of trees (Savage, Natural 1). Being no more than 12 inches long and 7.26 cm tall, cottontop tamarins weigh less than a pound. Aside from physical appearance, location, behavior, diet, and reproduction help describe the tamarin and its ecosystem. The tamarin lives in only one location in the world, the rainforests of Columbia, South America. Like many other animals, cotton-top tamarins live in groups of 8 to 13 and spend their days traveling, looking for prey, and resting. The cotton-top tamarins diet consists of nectar, saps, fruits, vegetables, flowers, small animals, and insects (Savage, Natural 2). Its predators include Marten-like tayra, forest hawks, and humans. A tamarin normally lives between 13 and 14 years, and females can bear 2 offspring a year, usually twins. Despite the tamarins inherent value within its ecosystem, causes of its endangerment continue to thrive. The cotton-top tamarin's aesthetic benefits, unique susceptibility t...
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables The two main variables in an experiment are the independent and dependent variable. An independent variable is the variable that is changed or controlled in a scientific experiment to test the effects on the dependent variable. A dependent variable is the variable being tested and measuredÃ in a scientific experiment. The dependent variable is dependent on the independent variable. As the experimenter changes the independent variable, the effect on the dependent variable is observed and recorded. Independent and Dependent Variable Example For example, a scientist wants to see if the brightness of light has any effect on a moth being attracted to the light. The brightness of the lightÃ is controlled by the scientist. This would be the independent variable. How the moth reacts to the different light levels (distance to light source)Ã would be the dependent variable. How to Tell the Variables Apart The independent and dependent variables may be viewed in terms of cause and effect. If the independent variable is changed, then an effect is seen in the dependent variable. Remember, the values of both variables may change in an experiment and are recorded. The difference is that the value of the independent variable is controlled by the experimenter, while the value of the dependent variable only changes in response to the independent variable. Remembering Variables With DRYMIX When results are plotted in graphs, the convention is to use the independent variable as the x-axis and the dependent variable as the y-axis. The DRY MIX acronym can help keep the variables straight: D is the dependent variableR is the responding variableY is the axis on which the dependent or responding variable is graphed (the vertical axis) M is the manipulated variable or the one that is changed in an experimentI is the independent variableX is the axis on which the independent or manipulated variable is graphed (the horizontal axis) Independent vs Dependent Variable Key Takeaways The independent and dependent variables are the two key variables in a science experiment.The independent variable is the one the experimenter controls. The dependent variable is the variable that changes in response to the independent variable.The two variables may be related by cause and effect. If the independent variable changes, then the dependent variable is affected. Sources Carlson, Robert. A concrete introduction to real analysis. CRC Press, 2006. p.183.Dodge, Y. (2003) The Oxford Dictionary of Statistical Terms, OUP. ISBN 0-19-920613-9Everitt, B. S. (2002). The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics (2nd ed.). Cambridge UP. ISBN 0-521-81099-X.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Comparing Feminism and Marxism - Essay Example The Marxists disagree on few things and one of those things is the scale to which they see a worker's revolution as the way of achieving human liberation and illumination and also the methods by which such revolution can occur in real. Marxism is sometimes described as 'Socialism'. According to some Marxists, the real and full Marxists principles were never implemented in any country; however, socialist countries implemented some part of Marxism. According to Karl Marx, a particular class of a society exploits the other class and according to him, this attitude in the society is the result of capitalism and free market. Marx defined the profit as the difference between the value of the product made by the laborer and the actual salary or the wage, which the laborer receives. He lighted his point that in Capitalist economy, money is earned by paying fewer wage to laborers, but profit is not moderated in terms of risks vs. return. According to Marx, people are getting away from their nature and natural behavior, and he accused capitalism for this. In capitalist economy, all benefits are being transferred to the employers and employees get a very low share out of the profit. Like this, employer is actually taking the advantages, which are earned by the hardworking laborers1. According to Marx, alimentation is the situation in which a person lays in capitalism, and it is not necessary that he or she himself admit that they are alienated. 3. Base and superstructure: According to Marx, the 'base structure' explains their point that the entire relations among people with respect to 'the social production of their existence' makes the economic basis in the society. And on this economic basis, the political and legal institutions are formed finally. The other factors affecting this are the religion, philosophy and other ideas. There is always a conflict between the development of material productive forces and the relation of production. This conflict results in the change in economic basis and finally it will cause the transformation of the superstructure2. According to Marx, this relationship is not a one-way process, but both sides are involved in it. And their relationship is considered as dialectical and not a distinction. 4. Class-consciousness: this is used to refer the awareness of oneself and also of the social world around oneself where we live. The awareness about the social class helps in understanding the capacity and it should be known before the class starts a successful revolution. 5. Ideology: Marx used the term 'ideology' in a special meaning and that is to allocate the production of social reality. Engels describes ideology as, 'a process accomplished by the so-called thinker consciously, it is true, but with a false consciousness. The real motive forces impelling him remain unknown to him; otherwise it simply would not be an ideological process. Hence he imagines false of seeming motive forces.'3 This all happens due to the reason that the ruling class controls the resources and in this way they also controls the superstructure of society. In this way, the decisions made would be in favor of ruling class and we cannot expect that they will make any decision which will be in favor of lower class. Marx states in his The
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Pathophysiology - Essay Example This can be as a result of consumption of poor diets or unhealthy lifestyle (Timby & Smith, 2005). Disorders leading to left-sided congestive heart failure can be seen in both children and adults. In children, it can be caused by birth defects involving the heart and heart muscles such as abnormal heart valves or blood vessel connection. In adults, such disorders include hypothyroidism and other inherited heart conditions that can lead to cardiomyopathy. High blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, obesity and coronary artery diseases are other risk factors for left-sided congestive heart failure (Hobbs & Boyle, 2014). According to Robinson, N. E., & Sprayberry (2009), the most common symptom for left-sided heart failure is fatigue, weakness or faintness as a result of insufficient supply of oxygen to the body. Other symptoms include shortness of breath due to excess fluid accumulation in the lungs, decreased urine production and abrupt weight gain due to excessive fluid retention and cough that contains frothy or bloody mucus. Right ventricular systolic dysfunction could occur as a result of left-sided congestive heart failure
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Nuclear Weapons should be Extirpate Essay Nuclear weapons are considered serious threats to the human race and have made the world an insecure residence for living organisms. Nuclear weapons are destructive weapons that obtain its force from nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reaction. Both are theses producers are very harmful for the living organism. Nuclear weapons were first conducted in world war2 on Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan. It killed approximately 70,000 died immediately from the explosion and another 70,000 died from radiation within five years. The killing included the women and children. All nuclear weapons must be abolished around the world for making world secure, and save budget money. The entire world will be more secure if the planet will free of the nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons are the only type of weapons in existence that have the capacity to annihilate the human species and countless other species. The reactions of the nuclear weapons live alive after many years of its used. The best example is Nagasaki and Hiroshima in Japan. The nuclear bomb was used on these cities during the world war2, but Nagasaki and Hiroshima are still suffering with the reaction of nuclear bomb. Japanese cannot grow any crop in Nagasaki and Hiroshima because the fusion reaction of nuclear bomb is still alive. Without abolition, there is always the danger that nuclear weapons will proliferate, that more and more countries will obtain them. The existence of nuclear weapons leaves open possibility that a nuclear exchange might take place. The nuclear weapons are extra ordinary costly, and the costs continue into the indefinite future. Billions of dollars are wasted each year to pay for nuclear weapons. The cost of research, development, testing, deployment, and maintenance of the nuclear program is very high. Even it becomes higher, when we include the costs of damage to the land, illness of uranium miners,Ã cancer deaths from nuclear pollution, and the storage of nuclear wastage. Since early 1940s the U.S. alone has spent $4 trillion on nuclear arms. If current policies are implemented, the U.S. will continue to spend some $25-30 billion on nuclear forces. What is the more important education or nuclear bombs that can kill the human? Today, Congress and Administration are watching government spending, shrinking and eliminating programs and taking measures to reduce the deficit. Despite this, the central feature of national security spending for the past fifty years, nuclear weapons, has been rarely touched. Possession of nuclear weapon does not mean that the country is powerful. Many developed countries such as, Australia, Germany, and Spain do not have nuclear bomb. Some countries have already given up nuclear weapons, showing that it is possible for a nation to be secure without nuclear bomb. Three former Soviet republics, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine, became nuclear weapons free states by volunteering transferring their nuclear warheads to Russia after the breakup of the Soviet Union. South Africa actually developed a small nuclear arsenal clandestinely, and then dismantled it. Argentina and Brazil have also eliminated their nuclear weapons programs even though they achieved initial success in these programs. These countries give a massage to the nuclear powers that you can succeed without nuclear bomb. In summary, the above analysis shows that nuclear weapons are weapons of great destruction. Our government wastes over thirty- three billion dollars a year of our tax money. Furthermore, nuclear weapons pose serious health risk to those around them, including the citizen. There has not been a significant impact on world affairs by nuclear weapons since world war2. Having a nuclear bomb does not guarantee the better life of the citizen, and development of the country. For these reasons, the nuclear weapons should be banned in entire world.